Collagen – is a group of simple proteins that are exclusively made up of fibrous (fibrous) amino acids commonly found in the body of humans and animals.
Coll-glue, genino-parent. Glueparent – from Greek translation. This word expresses the functions of collagen, which is a protein that binds to cellular elements that enable the formation of single cells, tissues and organs. Collagen throughout the organism’s life remains in constant and full exchange. The “hardest” collagen is present in bones, where the exchange occurs throughout the year, while the least “hard” collagen is found in the liver, where the exchange lasts about month.
What is Collagen made of?
Collagen is composed of 19 different amino acids. The most important are: proline, glycine, hydroxyproline and hydroxyllysine. Two last are not present in other proteins or occur sporadically in unknown quantities. Amino acids that are composed of elements of carbon, oxygen and hydrogen are reacting with nitrogen atoms. The combination of at least one hundred amino acids leads to the formation of a polypeptide chain. This is where protein originates and collagen is produced. In the case of collagen, the amino acid composition of its chains causes them to form a spiral that takes on a spatial shape and is called superhelis. The protein of the scleroprotein type – keratin and type – collagen, which is the main protein component of the connective tissue, in which forms collagen fibers composed of single molecules of collagen (tropocollagen). The collagen molecule is made up of three right-handed polypeptide chains that wrap around a common axis to form a left-handed superspiral. Collagen molecules are synthesized inside the cell to enter the cellular space, where fibers are formed. Collagen is resistant to proteolytic enzymes. A specific collagen-degrading enzyme is collagen produced by certain strains of bacteria.
In hot water the collagen swells, and after prolonged heating to boiling it denatures and turns into gelatine, the water-soluble protein is susceptible to proteolytic enzymes.
Collagen fibres under microscope
Where can it be found?
Collagen is the main fibrous component of the skin, tendons, cartilages, teeth and vessels. It occurs throughout the human body, also in the eyeball, serving as a substance that binds the cell. It represents 30% of the total weight of the human protein and is responsible for elasticity, firmness, proper skin hydration, and continuous cell renewal.
Interesting fact: in a human weighing 75 kg, 15 kg is a protein and in this 7.5 kg is a collagen.
It participates in the vital functions of almost all systems, organs and tissues.
At what age we start to lose collagen?
About 1.1% of collagen loss occurs when we are about 25 years of age. Already then the skin loses firmness, elasticity and elasticity, muscles lose strength, and bones become poor in calcium.
What are the signs of collagen loss?
After 30 years of age, in virtually every person, the disappearance of sebaceous and sweat glands begins as well as the progressive dryness and thrombosis of the skin. Wrinkles appear. This is due to the weakening of elastin and collagen fibers, which are the major components of the connective tissue stroma. Free radicals toxins and collagenase – destroying enzymes that destroy protein fibers, and the levels of micronutrients and vitamins that stimulate the natural production of collagen by fibroblasts and chondrocytes are reduced in the body. The collagen exchange in the body is still going on, but closer to aging, these degradation processes are beginning to outweigh the synthesis processes, particularly the synthesis of soluble collagen, which has so far provided skin with elasticity and swelling ability thanks to its ability to bind water.
With age, the body loses the ability to rebuild collagen. Collagen disturbances are also exacerbated by chronic overload (physical activity, competitive sport) and autoimmune diseases (joint degeneration). Disorders in collagen metabolism are manifested not only in dysfunction within the locomotive system (stiffness, peri-articular pain) but also in those tissues and organs for which collagen and twin substances play a strategic role. When collagen deficiency occurs, senile body changes: wrinkles, discolorations, cellulitis, dry skin, nail and hair dullness, shrinking silhouette. The most dangerous for health and life are disorders in the immune system, where collagen plays a very important defense role – limiting the penetration and spread of pathogenic organisms-environmental toxins, microorganisms and cancer cells. Also, it should be stressed that the loss of collagen affects our well-being, the problem of normal sleep and in many cases lead to depression. All these accidents can be prevented or delayed by the replenishing of collagen.
Gerontological research clearly demonstrates that skin aging occurs in connective tissue, the main component being collagen. The physiological process of aging of the skin consists in the progressive transformation of soluble collagen found in young tissue to insoluble by the biological process of aging of the connective tissue. The skin loses its elasticity and swelling due to the decreasing water binding capacity. The loss of soluble collagen is therefore a natural phenomenon in the aging process, but from the point of view of cosmetics – undesirable. There is therefore a need to supplement protein deficiency by using cosmetic preparations containing SOLUBLE COLLAGEN, which plays the role of a natural moisturizer.
It is necessary to replenish collagen with products that contain collagen composition very well absorbed. Serums products, creams, shampoos, body lotions. As well, it must be remembered that supplementation, that is, the delivery of collagen to the body from the inside, is necessary to replenish collagen deficiencies.